Hari ni saya tolong terjemah artikel dari Authority Nutrition yang bertajuk “12 things that make you gain belly fat”, dalam Bahasa Malaysia 12 benda yang menjadikan perut anda boroi, nak baca lanjut boleh klik di sini.

Excess belly fat is extremely unhealthy.

  • Lemak berlebihan di keliling pinggang atau perut boroi adalah sangat tidak menyihatkan.

It’s a risk factor for diseases like metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, heart disease and cancer.

  • Ia merupakan risiko untuk mendapat penyakit seperti metabolik sindrome, kencing manis, sakit jantung dan kanser.

The medical term for unhealthy fat in the belly is “visceral fat,” which refers to fat surrounding the liver and other organs in your abdomen.

  • Istilah perubatan bagi perut boroi adalah ‘visceral fat’ atau lemak dalam organ, yang merujuk kepada lemak di sekeliling hati dan organ2 lain dalam abdomen.

Even normal-weight people with excess belly fat have an increased risk of health problems.

  • Orang yang berat normal tetapi lebih lemak sekeliling pinggang mempunyai risiko kesihatan.

Here are 12 things that make you gain belly fat.

  • Disenaraikan 12 perkara yang membuat perut boroi

1. Sugary Foods and Beverages

  • Makanan dan minuman manis

Many people take in more sugar every day than they realize.

  • Ramai orang makan gula berlebihan setiap hari tanpa disedari.

High-sugar foods include cakes and candies, along with so-called “healthier” choices like muffins and frozen yogurt. Soda, flavored coffee drinks and sweet tea are among the most popular sugar-sweetened beverages.

  • Makanan yang mengandungi gula pada kadar yang tinggi termasuk kek dan gula2, muffin dan frozen yogurt. Air minuman bergas, kopi berperisa, teh manis adalah antara minuman manis yang disukai ramai.

Observational studies have shown a link between high sugar intake and excess belly fat. This may be largely due to the high fructose content of added sugars

  • Kajian menunjukkan terdapat kaitan antara makan gula pada kadar yang tinggi dan perut boroi. Ini kerana kandungan fruktose yang tinggi sebagai gula tambahan.

Both regular sugar and high-fructose corn syrup are high in fructose. Regular sugar has 50% fructose and high-fructose corn syrup has 55% fructose.

  • Kedua2 gula dan sirap jagung tinggi fruktose mengandungi banyak fruktose. Sirap biasa ada 50% fruktose dan sirap jagung tinggi fruktose pula ada 55% fruktose.

In a controlled 10-week study, overweight and obese people who consumed 25% of calories as fructose-sweetened beverages on a weight-maintaining diet experienced a decrease in insulin sensitivity and an increase in belly fat.

  • Dalam satu kajian selama 10 minggu, orang yang lebih berat badan dan orang yang obes yang makan 25% kalori dari minuman manis fruktose, menyertai diet untuk mengurangkan berat badan dan mendapat pengurangan insulin sensitif (pra-diabetes) dan meningkat perut boroi.

A second study reported a reduction in fat burning and metabolic rate among people who followed a similar high-fructose diet.

  • Kajian kedua pula menunjukkan kekurangan kadar pembakaran lemak dan kadar metabolisma di kalangan orang yang mengikut diet tinggi fruktose.

Although too much sugar in any form may lead to weight gain, sugar-sweetened beverages may be especially problematic. Sodas and other sweet drinks make it easy to consume large doses of sugar in a very short period of time.

  • Terlalu banyak gula dalam apa jua bentuk mungkin menyebabkan kenaikan berat badan, tetapi, minuman manis adalah sangat bermasalah. Minuman bergas dan minuman manis lain menjadikan mudah untuk makan gula pada kadar yang tinggi dengan pantas.

What’s more, studies have shown that liquid calories don’t have the same effects on appetite as calories from solid foods. When you drink your calories, it doesn’t make you feel full so you don’t compensate by eating less of other foods instead.

  • Kajian menunjukkan minuman berkalori tinggi tidak sama kesan dengan kalori dari makanan pejal. Bila kalori diminum, ia tidak menjadikan seseorang berasa kenyang, jadi terpaksa makan makanan yang lain pula untuk rasa kenyang.

Bottom Line: Frequently consuming foods and beverages high in sugar or high-fructose corn syrup may cause belly fat gain.

  • Kesimpulannya, makan makanan dan minuman yang mempunyai kandungan gula yang tinggi atau kandungan sirap jagung tinggi fruktose yang tinggi boleh menyebabkan perut boroi.
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Gambar hiasan…

2. Alcohol.

  • Arak

Alcohol can have both healthful and harmful effects

  • Arak ada kesan yang baik dan buruk ke atas kesihatan.

Some studies have shown that alcohol suppresses fat burning and that excess calories from alcohol are partly stored as belly fat — hence the term “beer belly”.

  • Ada kajian menunjukkan arak menyekat pembakaran lemak dan lebihan kalori dari arak di simpan sebagai lemak keliling pinggang.

Bottom Line: Heavy alcohol consumption increases risk of several diseases and is linked to excess belly fat.

  • Kesimpulannya, minum arak dengan banyak meningkatkan risiko pelbagai penyakit dan menyebabkan perut boroi.

3.Trans Fats

  • Lemak Trans

Trans fats are the unhealthiest fats on the planet.

  • Lemak trans adalah lemak yang paling tidak menyihatkan.

They’re created by adding hydrogen to unsaturated fats in order to make them more stable.

  • Lemak trans dicipta dengan menambahkan hidrogen pada lemak tak tepu supaya ia jadi stable.

Trans fats are often used to extend the shelf lives of packaged foods, such as muffins, baking mixes and crackers.

  • Lemak trans digunakan untuk meningkatkan jangka hayat makanan seperti muffin, crackers dan sebagainya.

Trans fats have been shown to cause inflammation. This can lead to insulin resistance, heart disease and various other diseases

  • Lemak trans menyebabkan keradangan yang boleh menyebabkan insulin resistance, penyakit jantung dan pelbagai penyakit lain.

There are also some animal studies suggesting that diets containing trans fats may cause excess belly fat.

  • Terdapat juga kajian ke atas haiwan yang menunjukkan diet yang mengandungi lemak trans menyebabkan perut boroi.

At the end of a 6-year study, monkeys fed an 8% trans fat diet gained weight and had 33% more abdominal fat than monkeys fed an 8% monounsaturated fat diet, despite both groups receiving just enough calories to maintain their weight.

  • Di akhir kajian 6 tahun, monyet yang diberi makan 8% lemak trans bertambah berat badan dan ada 33% lebih perut boroi berbanding monyet yang makana 8% lemak tak tepu dalam diet, walaupun kedua2 kumpulan mendapat cukup kalori untuk mengekalkan berat badan.

Bottom Line: Trans fats increase inflammation that may drive insulin resistance and the accumulation of belly fat.

  • Kesimpulan: lemak trans meningkatkan keradangan dan menyebabkan insulin resistance dan perut boroi.

4. Inactivity

  • Tidak aktif

A sedentary lifestyle is one of the biggest risk factors for poor health.

  • Gaya hidup yang tidak aktif adalah risiko terbesar untuk taraf kesihatan yang rendah

Over the past few decades, people have generally become less active. This has likely played a role in the rising rates of obesity, including abdominal obesity.

  • Selama beberapa dekad yang lepas manusia semakin kurang aktif dan ini mengakibatkan peningkatan kadar obes, termasuk perut boroi.

Fit vs. Fat Man with Text

  • Cergas lawan gemuk

A major survey from 1988-2010 in the US found that there was a significant increase in inactivity, weight and abdominal girth in men and women.

  • Kajian di US dari 1988-2010 menunjukkan terdapat peningkatan orang yang tidak aktif, berat badan dan perut boroi di kalangan lelaki dan wanita.

Another observational study compared women who watched more than three hours of TV per day to those who watched less than one hour per day.

  • Kajian lain membandingkan wanita yang menonton lebih dari 3jam TV sehari dan kurang dari satu jam sehari.

The group that watched more TV had almost twice the risk of “severe abdominal obesity” compared to the group that watched less TV.

  • Kumpulan yang lebih banyak menonton TV mempunyai dua kali ganda risiko perut boroi yang teruk berbanding kumpulan yang menonton kurang TV.

One study also suggests that inactivity contributes to the regain of belly fat after losing weight.

  • Satu kajian juga menunjukkan kurang aktiviti membantu perut kembali boroi setelah hilang berat badan.

In this study, researchers reported that people who performed resistance or aerobic exercise for 1 year after losing weight were able to prevent abdominal fat regain, while those who did not exercise had a 25–38% increase in belly fat.

  • Dalam kajian ini, orang yang membuat senaman resistance atau aerobik untuk 1 tahun selepas hilang berat badan berlebihan mampu mengelak perut kembali boroi, sementara mereka yang tidak bersenam ada 28-35% untuk meningkatkan perut boroi.

Bottom Line: Inactivity may promote an increase in belly fat. Resistance and aerobic exercise may prevent abdominal fat regain after weight loss.

  • Kesimpulannya, tidak aktif menyebabkan perut boroi. Senaman resistance dan aerobik mengelakkan perut kembali boroi selepas hilang berat badan berlebihan.

5. Low-Protein Diets

  • Diet kurang protein

Getting adequate dietary protein is one of the most important factors in preventing weight gain.

  • Mendapatkan cukup protein dalam makanan adalah paling penting untuk kurangkan berat badan

High-protein diets make you feel full and satisfied, increase your metabolic rate and lead to a spontaneous reduction in calorie intake

  • Diet yang tinggi protein akan menyebabkan anda rasa kenyang dan meningkatkan kadar metabolisma, membawa kepada pengurangan pemakanan kalori.

In contrast, low protein intake may cause you to gain belly fat over the long term.

  • Diet yang kurang protein pula akan membuat perut boroi dalam jangka masa panjang.

Several large observational studies suggest that people who consume the highest amount of protein are the least likely to have excess belly fat

  • Kajian menunjukkan orang yang paling banyak makan protein paling kurang perut boroi.

6. Menopause

  • menopause (putus haid) untuk wanita

Gaining belly fat during menopause is extremely common.

  • Perut menjadi boroi ketika menopause adalah kerap berlaku.

Menopause officially occurs one year after a woman has her last menstrual period.

Around this time, her estrogen levels drop dramatically, causing fat to be stored in the abdomen, rather than on the hips and thighs

  • Selepas menopause, lemak di simpan di perut dan bukan peha dan punggung.

Bottom Line: Hormonal changes at menopause result in a shift in fat storage from the hips and thighs to visceral fat in the abdomen.

  • Kesimpulannya, perubahan hormon semasa menopause menyebabkan lemak disimpan di perut

7. The Wrong Gut Bacteria

  • Mempunyai jenis bakteria di usus yang salah

The bacteria in your gut are also known as your gut flora or microbiome. Gut health is important for maintaining a healthy immune system and avoiding disease.

  • Bakteria dalam salur usus dinamakan mircobiome. Kesihatan sistem usus penting supaya sistem imun sihat dan penyakit dapat dicegah.

An imbalance in gut bacteria increases your risk of developing type 2 diabetes, heart disease, cancer and other diseases

  • Bila kandungan bakteria dalam usus tidak seimbang, risiko mendapat kencing manis, penyakit jantung dan kanser semakin tinggi.

There’s also some research suggesting that having an unhealthy balance of gut bacteria may promote weight gain, including abdominal fat.

  • Terdapat kajian menunjukkan ketidak-seimbangan bakteria dalam usus menyebabkan lebih berat badan, termasuk perut boroi.

Researchers have found that obese people tend to have greater numbers of Firmicutes bacteria than people of normal weight. Studies suggest that these types of bacteria may increase the amount of calories that are absorbed from food

  • Kajian menunjukkan orang yang ada banyak bakteria jenis Firmicutes lebih obes berbanding orang yang berat nya normal.

Studies on lean and obese twins and their mothers have confirmed that there is a common “core” of shared flora among families that may influence weight gain, including where the weight is stored

  • Kajian ke atas kembar kurus dan obes menunjukkan ada kaitan antara jenis bakteria dan berat badan, termasuk di mana lemak di simpan.

8. Fruit Juice

  • Jus buah

Fruit juice is a sugary beverage in disguise.

  • Jus buah mengandungi gula

Even unsweetened 100% fruit juice contains a lot of sugar

  • Jus buah yang tidak ditambah gula pun ada banyak gula.

In fact, 8 oz (250 ml) of apple juice and cola each contain 24 grams of sugar.

  • 250ml jus epal dan minuman bergas mempunyai 24 gram gula

Although fruit juice provides some vitamins and minerals, the fructose it contains can drive insulin resistance and promote belly fat gain

  • Walaupun jus buah ada vitamin dan mineral, ia menyebabkan perut boroi.

Bottom Line: Fruit juice is a high-sugar beverage that can promote insulin resistance and belly fat gain if you drink too much of it

  • Kesimpulannya, jus buah ada kandungan gula yang tinggi dan boleh menyebabkan insulin resistance (pra-diabetes) jika diminum berlebihan.

9. Stress and Cortisol

  • Tekanan (stress) dan hormon kortisol

Cortisol is a hormone that’s essential for survival

  • Hormon kortisol adalah penting untuk hidup.

It’s produced by the adrenal glands and is known as a “stress hormone” because it helps your body to mount a stress response

  • Ia dihasilkan dari kelenjar adrenal dan adalah ‘stres hormon’ sebab ia membantu badan membuat respon stres.

Unfortunately, it can lead to weight gain when produced in excess, especially in the abdominal region.

  • Tetapi, ia boleh menyebabkan berat badan lebih bila dihasilkan secara berlebihan terutama di bahagian perut

In many people, stress drives overeating. But instead of the excess calories being stored as fat all over the body, cortisol promotes fat storage in the belly.

  • Stress menyebabkan ramai orang terlebih makan. Kortisol pula menyebabkan kalori berlebihan disimpan sebagai lemak keliling pinggang.

Interestingly, women who have large waists in proportion to their hips have been found to secrete more cortisol when stressed.

  • Wanita yang ada pinggang besar juga menghasilkan lebih banyak hormon kortisol.

Bottom Line: The hormone cortisol, which is secreted in response to stress, may lead to increased abdominal fat. This is particularly true in women with higher waist-to-hip ratios.

  • Kesimpulannya, hormon kortisol mungkin menyebabkan perut boroi terutama untuk wanita yang ada nisbah lilitan pinggang ke peha yang tinggi.

10. Low-Fiber Diets

  • Diet yang kurang serat

Fiber is incredibly important for good health and controlling your weight.

  • Serat adalah penting untuk kesihatan dan mengawal berat badan.

Some types of fiber can help you feel full, stabilize hunger hormones and reduce calorie absorption from food.

  • Serat membantu rasa kenyang, mengurangkan hormon lapar dan mengurangkan kalori yang diserap dari makanan.

In an observational study of 1,114 men and women, soluble fiber intake was associated with reduced abdominal fat. For each 10-gram increase in soluble fiber there was a 3.7% decrease in belly fat accumulation.

  • Kajian menunjukkan pengambilan serat mengurangkan lemak pinggang. Setiap 10 gram makan serat lebih ada 3.7% penurunan lemak pinggang.

Diets high in refined carbs and low in fiber appear to have the opposite effect on appetite and weight gain, including increases in belly fat.

  • Pemakanan yang banyak karbohidrat ‘refined’ dan kurang serat ada kesan berlawanan ke atas selera dan berat badan, terutama lemak keliling pinggang.

One large study found that high-fiber whole grains were associated with reduced abdominal fat, while refined grains were linked to increased abdominal fat.

  • Satu kajian menunjukkan serat-tinggi whole grains dikaitkan dengan kurang lemak pinggang, sementara refined grains dikaitkan dengan lebih lemak pinggang.

Bottom Line: A diet that is low in fiber and high in refined grains may lead to increased amounts of belly fat.

  • Diet yang kurang serat dan tinggi refined grains mungkin menyebabkan perut boroi.

11. Genetics

  • Genetik

Genes play a major role in obesity risk.

  • Genes memainkan peranan yang penting dalam menentukan risiko obes.

Similarly, it appears that the tendency to store fat in the abdomen is partly influenced by genetics.

  • Setengah orang lebih ‘suka’ menyimpan lemak di pinggang kerana keturunan.

This includes the gene for the receptor that regulates cortisol and the gene that codes for the leptin receptor, which regulates calorie intake and weight.

  • Ini termasuk gene yang mengawal receptor untuk hormon kortisol dan gene yang code untuk receptor leptin, hormon yang mengawal pemakanan kalori dan berat badan.

In 2014, researchers identified three new genes associated with increased waist-to-hip ratio and abdominal obesity, including two that were found only in women.

  • Kajian mendapati tiga gene yang berkaitan dengan peningkatan nisbah pinggang ke punggung dan perut boroi dan dua terdapat hanya pada wanita.

However, much more research needs to be conducted in this area.

  • Kajian lanjut diperlukan.

Bottom Line: Genes appear to play a role in high waist-to-hip ratios and storage of excess calories as belly fat.

  • Kesimpulannya: faktor keturunan memainkan peranan penting dalam perut boroi.

12. Not Enough Sleep

  • Tidak cukup tidur

Getting enough sleep is crucial for your health.

  • Mendapatkan tidur yang cukup adalah penting untuk kesihatan.

Many studies have also linked inadequate sleep with weight gain, which may include abdominal fat.

  • Banyak kajian menunjukkan tidak cukup tidur dikaitkan dengan berat badan berlebihan dan perut boroi.

One large study followed over 68,000 women for 16 years.

  • Satu kajian melibatkan 68,000 wanita dalam masa 16 tahun.

Those who slept 5 hours or less per night were 32% more likely to gain 32 lbs (15 kg) than those who slept at least 7 hours.

  • Mereka yang tidur 5 jam atau kurang setiap malam mempunyai 32% peluang meningkatkan berat badan sebanyak 15kg berbanding mereka yang tidur 7jam.

Sleep disorders may also lead to weight gain. One of the most common disorders, sleep apnea, is a condition in which breathing stops repeatedly during the night due to soft tissue in the throat blocking the airway.

  • Masalah tidur juga boleh menyebabkan lebih berat badan. Sleep apnea adalah keadaan di mana pernafasan terhenti berulang kali semasa tidur di waktu malam kerana tisu tekak menyekat salur pernafasan.

In one study, researchers found that obese men with sleep apnea had more abdominal fat than obese men without the disorder.

  • Satu kajian menunjukkan lelaki obes dengan sleep apnea ada lebih lemak perut berbanding lelaki yang tidak ada sleep apnea.

Bottom Line: Short sleep or poor-quality sleep may lead to weight gain, including belly fat accumulation.

  • Kesimpulannya tidak cukup tidur boleh menyebabkan berat bertambah termasuk perut boroi.

Take Home Message

Many different factors can make you gain excess belly fat.

There are a few you can’t do much about, like your genes and hormone changes at menopause. But there are also many factors you can control.

Making healthy choices about what to eat and what to avoid, how much you exercise and how you manage stress can all help you lose belly fat.

  • Kesimpulannya, terdapat banyak faktor yang boleh menyebabkan perut boroi, ada yang tak dapat dikawal contohnya faktor genetik, dan yang lain boleh dikawal.
  • Pilihlah makanan yang sihat dan elakkan makanan yang tidak sihat, bersenam dan kawal stress boleh membantu anda menghilangkan perut boroi.
  • Semoga bermanfaat.
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