Alhamdulillah, we are soon nearing the end of Ramadan. Time to celebrate and reflect on what has been achieved and done during this blessed month.
I am aware there is an issue viral in the social media about eating in public during Ramadan by muslims who have legitimate reason not to fast for example menstruating women, young children, the sick and so on.
I do not have an opinion on the matter. Personally, I remember last year, when my daughter still did not fast fully, she fast some days and most days would break around afternoon. We went shopping for raya clothes and I was not fasting that day. Then we stopped to buy some food, hers to eat and mine take-away as she was tired. While eating, she offered me some of hers, as she knew I was not fasting, but since it was a public place, my first reaction without even thinking, was one of embarrassment.
Instead of dwelling on that issue, I began to think about the reason behind fasting. Why did God command us to fast in the first place? Since I am not a scholar in Islamic studies, I will just share what I found on google as a matter of interest.
I love to read the Quran and reflect on its meaning. I know that a lot of people do their best to finish reading the Quran during Ramadan and I think that is a great feat to work towards, for myself, realistically, I still struggle to read the Quran more than once daily during the rest of the year. So instead, I aimed for something more modest, just read twice what I normally do, so read the Quran with translation at least twice a day.
I noticed that, while there are many verses in the Quran about establishing the prayer, and many of these verses are followed by zakat, so much so it seems prayer and zakat come hand in hand, and there are not that many verses about fasting.
So I googled verses in the Quran regarding fasting and this is what I found:
“Ramadan is the (month) in which the Quran was sent down, as a guide to mankind and a clear guidance and judgment (so that mankind will distinguish from right and wrong)..” (Q 2:183)
Oh you who believe! Fasting is prescribed to you as it was prescribed to those before you, that you many learn piety and righteousness” (Q 2:183)
Fasting is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may attain taqwaa.” (Q2:183)
The most honored by Allah amongst you are those best in taqwaa.”(Q 49:13)
..And it is better for you that ye fast, if ye only knew.” (Q 2:184)
“Indeed We have revealed it (Qur’an) in the night of Power. And what will explain to you what the night of Power is? The night of Power is better than a thousand months. Therein descends the Angels and the Spirit (Jibreel) by Allah’s permission, on every errand: (they say) “Peace” (continuously) till the rise of Morning!” (Q 97:1-5)
We sent it (this Qur’an) down on a blessed Night. Verily, We are ever warning (mankind of Our Torment). Therein (that Night) is decreed every matter of ordainment. Amran (i.e. a command or this Qur’an or His Decree of every matter) from Us. Verily, We are ever sending (the Messenger). (As) a Mercy from your Lord. Verily! He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower.” (Ad-Dukhaan 44: 3-6)
The Messenger of Allah (saw) said, “When the month of Ramadan starts, the gates of the heaven are opened and the gates of Hell are closed and the devils are chained.” (Imam Bukhari) …
Narrated Abu Huraira(r.a): The Messenger of Allah (saw) said:”… whoever fasts during Ramadan out of sincere faith and hoping to attain Allah’s rewards, then all his past sins will be forgiven.” (Imam Bukhari).
The Messenger of Allah (saw) addressed his companions on the last day of Sha`ban, saying, “Oh people! A great month has come over you; a blessed month; a month in which is a night better than a thousand months; month in which Allah has made it compulsory upon you to fast by day, and voluntary to pray by night. Whoever draws nearer (to Allah) by performing any of the (optional) good deeds in (this month) shall receive the same reward as performing an obligatory deed at any other time, and whoever discharges an obligatory deed in (this month) shall receive the reward of performing seventy obligations at any other time. It is the month of patience, and the reward of patience is Heaven. It is the month of charity, and a month in which a believer’s sustenance is increased. Whoever gives food to a fasting person to break his fast, shall have his sins forgiven, and he will be saved from the Fire of Hell, and he shall have the same reward as the fasting person, without his reward being diminished at all.” [Narrated by Ibn Khuzaymah]
Abu Said al-Khudri reported that the Messenger of Allah (saw), said: “No servant fasts on a day in the path of Allah except that Allah removes the hellfire seventy years further away from his face.” This is related by “the group,” except for Imam Abu Dawud.
`Abdullah ibn `Amr reported that the Messenger of Allah (saw), said: “The fast and the Qur’an are two intercessors for the servant of Allah on the Day of Resurrection. The fast will say: ‘O Lord, I prevented him from his food and desires during the day. Let me intercede for him.’ The Qur’an will say: ‘I prevented him from sleeping at night. Let me intercede for him.’ And their intercession will be accepted.” [Imam Ahmad]
Abu Umamah reported: “I came to the Messenger of Allah (saw) and said: ‘Order me to do a deed that will allow me to enter Paradise.’ He said: ‘Stick to fasting, as there is no equivalent to it.’ Then I came to him again and he said: ‘Stick to fasting.”‘ [Imam Ahmad, Imam Nasa’i, and Imam Hakim].
Sahl ibn Sa’d reported that the Messenger of Allah (saw): “There is a gate to Paradise that is called ar-Rayyan. On the Day of Resurrection it will say: ‘Where are those who fasted?’ When the last [one] has passed through the gate, it will be locked.” [Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim].
He who is amongst those who pray will be called from the gate of the prayer (in Paradise) and he who is from the people of Jihad will be called from the gate of Jihad, and he who is from those’ who give in charity (i.e. Zakat) will be called from the gate of charity, and he who is amongst those who observe fast will be called from the gate of fasting, the gate of Raiyan.” Abu Bakr said, “He who is called from all those gates will need nothing,” He added, “Will anyone be called from all those gates, O Allah’s Apostle?” He said, “Yes, and I hope you will be among those, O Abu Bakr.” [Imam Bukhari]
Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah (saw) said : “The time between the five prayers, two consecutive Friday Prayers, and two consecutive Ramadans are expiations for all that has happened during that period, provided that one has avoided the grave (major) sins.” [Imam Muslim]
In another hadith, the Messenger of Allah (saw) says, “Ramadan has come to you. (It is) a month of blessing, in which Allah covers you with blessing, for He sends down Mercy, decreases sins and answers prayers. In it, Allah looks at your competition (in good deeds), and boasts about you to His angels. So show Allah goodness from yourselves, for the unfortunate one is he who is deprived in (this month) of the mercy of Allah, the Mighty, the Exalted.” [ImamTabarani]
Abu Umaamah r.a.a. said: I said: ‘O Messenger of Allah (saw), tell me of an action by which I may enter Paradise’. He said: ‘Take to Fasting, there is nothing like it.’ [Imam Nasai’, Ibn Hibbaan, Al-Haakim, Saheeh]
Every action of the son of Adam is given manifold reward, each good deed receiving then times its like, up to seven hundred times. Allah the Most High said, ‘Except for fasting, for it is for Me and I will give recompense for it, he leaves off his desires and his food for Me.’ for the fasting person there are two times of joy; a time when he breaks his fast and a time of joy when he meets his Lord, and the smell coming from the mouth of the fasting person is better with Allah than the smell of musk.” [Imam Bukhari]
“Fasting is a shield with which a servant protects himself from the Fire.” [Imam Ahmad, Saheeh]
On the Day of Judgement, “Fasting will say: O My Lord I prevented him from food and desires so accept my intercession for him.” [Imam Ahmad, Imam Haakim and Abu Nu’aim, Hasan]
There are in the month of Ramadhan in every day and night those to whom Allah grants freedom from the Fire, and there is for every Muslim an supplication which he can make and will be granted.” [al-Bazzaar, Ahmad, Saheeh]
The Messenger of Allah (saw) said: He who gives food for a fasting person to break his fast, he will receive the same reward as him, except that nothing will be reduced from the fasting persons reward.” [Ahmad, at-Tirmidhee, Ibn Maajah, Ibn Hibbaan, Saheeh].”
So Allah commands us to fast so that we can learn piety and righteousness and attain taqwa. I’m not sure how eating in public when not fasting during Ramadhan fits into that.
Just out of interest I googled “verses in the Quran about prayer” and this is a good website:
[2:3-5] Who believe in the Unseen, are steadfast in prayer, and spend out of what We have provided for them;(3) – And who believe in the Revelation sent to thee, and sent before thy time, and (in their hearts) have the assurance of the Hereafter (4). They are on (true) guidance, from their Lord, and it is these who will prosper (5).
[2:43] And be steadfast in prayer; practise regular charity; and bow down your heads with those who bow down (in worship).
[2:45] Nay, seek (Allah’s) help with patient perseverance and prayer: It is indeed hard, except to those who bring a lowly spirit,-
[2:143] “Thus, have We made of you an Ummat justly balanced, that ye might be witnesses over the nations, and the Messenger a witness over yourselves; and We appointed the Qibla to which thou wast used, only to test those who followed the Messenger from those who would turn on their heels (From the Faith). Indeed it was (A change) momentous, except to those guided by Allah. And never would Allah Make your faith of no effect. For Allah is to all people Most surely full of kindness, Most Merciful.”
[2:144] “We see the turning of thy face (for guidance to the heavens: now Shall We turn thee to a Qibla that shall please thee. Turn then Thy face in the direction of the sacred Mosque: Wherever ye are, turn your faces in that direction. The people of the Book know well that that is the truth from their Lord. Nor is Allah unmindful of what they do.”
[2:149] “From whencesoever Thou startest forth, turn Thy face in the direction of the sacred Mosque; that is indeed the truth from the Lord. And Allah is not unmindful of what ye do.”
[2:150] “So from whencesoever Thou startest forth, turn Thy face in the direction of the sacred Mosque; and wheresoever ye are, Turn your face thither: that there be no ground of dispute against you among the people, except those of them that are bent on wickedness; so fear them not, but fear Me; and that I may complete My favours on you, and ye May (consent to) be guided;”
[2:153] O ye who believe! seek help with patient perseverance and prayer; for Allah is with those who patiently persevere.
[2:238] “Guard strictly your (habit of) prayers, especially the Middle Prayer; and stand before Allah in a devout (frame of mind) (283). If ye fear (an enemy), pray on foot, or riding, (as may be most convenient), but when ye are in security, celebrate Allah’s praises in the manner He has taught you, which ye knew not (before). (239)”
[3:39] “The angels called to him as he was standing praying in the sanctuary: “Allah gives you good news of John; a believer in the word of God, honorable, moral, and a righteous prophet.”
[3:113] “They are not all the same; among the followers of the scripture there are those who are righteous. They recite God’s revelations through the night while prostrating.”
[4:43] “O ye who believe! Approach not prayers with a mind befogged, until ye can understand all that ye say,- nor in a state of ceremonial impurity (Except when travelling on the road), until after washing your whole body. If ye are ill, or on a journey, or one of you cometh from offices of nature, or ye have been in contact with women, and ye find no water, then take for yourselves clean sand or earth, and rub therewith your faces and hands. For Allah doth blot out sins and forgive again and again.”
[4:101] When ye travel through the earth, there is no blame on you if ye shorten your prayers, for fear the Unbelievers May attack you: For the Unbelievers are unto you open enemies.
[4:102] When thou (O Messenger) art with them, and standest to lead them in prayer, Let one party of them stand up (in prayer) with thee, Taking their arms with them: When they finish their prostrations, let them Take their position in the rear. And let the other party come up which hath not yet prayed – and let them pray with thee, Taking all precaution, and bearing arms: the Unbelievers wish, if ye were negligent of your arms and your baggage, to assault you in a single rush. But there is no blame on you if ye put away your arms because of the inconvenience of rain or because ye are ill; but take (every) precaution for yourselves. For the Unbelievers Allah hath prepared a humiliating punishment.
[4:103] When ye pass (Congregational) prayers, celebrate Allah’s praises, standing, sitting down, or lying down on your sides; but when ye are free from danger, set up Regular Prayers: For such prayers are enjoined on believers at stated times.
[4:142] The Hypocrites – they think they are over-reaching Allah, but He will over-reach them: When they stand up to prayer, they stand without earnestness, to be seen of men, but little do they hold Allah in remembrance;
[5:6] O ye who believe! when ye prepare for prayer, wash your faces, and your hands (and arms) to the elbows; Rub your heads (with water); and (wash) your feet to the ankles. If ye are in a state of ceremonial impurity, bathe your whole body. But if ye are ill, or on a journey, or one of you cometh from offices of nature, or ye have been in contact with women, and ye find no water, then take for yourselves clean sand or earth, and rub therewith your faces and hands, Allah doth not wish to place you in a difficulty, but to make you clean, and to complete his favour to you, that ye may be grateful.
[5:55] Your (real) friends are (no less than) Allah, His Messenger, and the (fellowship of) believers,- those who establish regular prayers and regular charity, and they bow down humbly (in worship).
[5:91] Satan’s plan is (but) to excite enmity and hatred between you, with intoxicants and gambling, and hinder you from the remembrance of Allah, and from prayer: will ye not then abstain?
[5:106] O ye who believe! When death approaches any of you, (take) witnesses among yourselves when making bequests,- two just men of your own (brotherhood) or others from outside if ye are journeying through the earth, and the chance of death befalls you (thus). If ye doubt (their truth), detain them both after prayer, and let them both swear by Allah: “We wish not in this for any worldly gain, even though the (beneficiary) be our near relation: we shall hide not the evidence before Allah: if we do, then behold! the sin be upon us!”
[6:72] “To establish regular prayers and to fear Allah: for it is to Him that we shall be gathered together.”
[6:114] “Say: “Shall I seek for judge other than Allah? – when He it is Who hath sent unto you the Book, explained in detail.” They know full well, to whom We have given the Book, that it hath been sent down from thy Lord in truth. Never be then of those who doubt.”
[6:162-163] Say: “Truly, my prayer and my service of sacrifice, my life and my death, are (all) for Allah, the Cherisher of the Worlds:(162) No partner hath He: this am I commanded, and I am the first of those who bow to His will.(163)
[7:31] O children of Adam, you shall be clean and dress nicely when you go to the masjid. And eat and drink moderately; Surely, He does not love the gluttons.
[7:170] As to those who hold fast by the Book and establish regular prayer,- never shall We suffer the reward of the righteous to perish.
[9:18] The mosques of Allah shall be visited and maintained by such as believe in Allah and the Last Day, establish regular prayers, and practise regular charity, and fear none (at all) except Allah. It is they who are expected to be on true guidance.
[9:54] The only reasons why their contributions are not accepted are: that they reject Allah and His Messenger; that they come to prayer without earnestness; and that they offer contributions unwillingly.
[9:71] The Believers, men and women, are protectors one of another: they enjoin what is just, and forbid what is evil: they observe regular prayers, practise regular charity, and obey Allah and His Messenger. On them will Allah pour His mercy: for Allah is Exalted in power, Wise.
[10:9-10] Those who believe, and work righteousness,- their Lord will guide them because of their faith: beneath them will flow rivers in gardens of bliss (9). (This will be) their cry therein: “Glory to Thee, O Allah!” And “Peace” will be their greeting therein! and the close of their cry will be: “Praise be to Allah, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the worlds!” (10)
[10:87] We inspired Moses and his brother with this Message: “Provide dwellings for your people in Egypt, make your dwellings into places of worship, and establish regular prayers: and give glad tidings to those who believe!”
[11:114] You shall observe the Contact Prayers (Salat) at both ends of the day, and during the night. The righteous works wipe out the evil works. This is a reminder for those who would take heed.
[14:31] Speak to my servants who have believed, that they may establish regular prayers, and spend (in charity) out of the sustenance we have given them, secretly and openly, before the coming of a Day in which there will be neither mutual bargaining nor befriending.
[15:98-99] “You shall glorify and praise your Lord and be with the prostrators, and worship your Lord until you attain certainty.”
[16:89] One day We shall raise from all Peoples a witness against them, from amongst themselves: and We shall bring thee as a witness against these (thy people): and We have sent down to thee the Book explaining all things, a Guide, a Mercy, and Glad Tidings to Muslims.
[17:78] You shall observe the Contact Prayer (salat) when the sun declines from its highest point at noon, as it moves towards sunset. You shall also observe (the recitation of) the Quran at dawn. (Reciting) the Quran at dawn is witnessed.
[17:110] Say, “Call Him GOD, or call Him the Most Gracious; whichever name you use, to Him belongs the best names.” You shall not utter your Contact Prayers (Salat) too loudly, nor secretly; use a moderate tone.
[18:27] “You shall recite what is revealed to you of your Lord’s Scripture (the Quran). Nothing shall abrogate His words, and you shall not find any other source beside it.”
[19:59] But after them there followed a posterity who missed prayers and followed after lusts soon, then, will they face Destruction,-
[20:14] “Verily, I am Allah: There is no god but I: So serve thou Me (only), and establish regular prayer for celebrating My praise.
[20:132] Enjoin prayer on thy people, and be constant therein. We ask thee not to provide sustenance: We provide it for thee. But the (fruit of) the Hereafter is for righteousness.
[21:73] And We made them leaders, guiding (men) by Our Command, and We sent them inspiration to do good deeds, to establish regular prayers, and to practise regular charity; and they constantly served Us (and Us only).
[22:26] Behold! We gave the site, to Abraham, of the (Sacred) House, (saying): “Associate not anything (in worship) with Me; and sanctify My House for those who compass it round, or stand up, or bow, or prostrate themselves (therein in prayer).
[22:35] To those whose hearts when Allah is mentioned, are filled with fear, who show patient perseverance over their afflictions, keep up regular prayer, and spend (in charity) out of what We have bestowed upon them.
[22:41] (They are) those who, if We establish them in the land, establish regular prayer and give regular charity, enjoin the right and forbid wrong: with Allah rests the end (and decision) of (all) affairs.
[23:1-6]The believers must (eventually) win through,- Those who humble themselves in their prayers; Who avoid vain talk; Who are active in deeds of charity; Who abstain from sex, Except with those joined to them in the marriage bond, or (the captives) whom their right hands possess,- for (in their case) they are free from blame,
[24:37] People who are not distracted by business or trade from commemorating GOD; they observe the Contact Prayers (salat), and give the obligatory charity (Zakat), and they are conscious of the day when the minds and the eyes will be horrified.
[29:45] Recite what is sent of the Book by inspiration to thee, and establish regular Prayer: for Prayer restrains from shameful and unjust deeds; and remembrance of Allah is the greatest (thing in life) without doubt. And Allah knows the (deeds) that ye do.
[30:31] Turn ye back in repentance to Him, and fear Him: establish regular prayers, and be not ye among those who join gods with Allah,- .
[35:29-30] Those who rehearse the Book of Allah, establish regular Prayer, and spend (in Charity) out of what We have provided for them, secretly and openly, hope for a commerce that will never fail:(29) – For He will pay them their meed, nay, He will give them (even) more out of His Bounty: for He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Ready to appreciate (service) (30).
[42:38] Those who hearken to their Lord, and establish regular Prayer; who (conduct) their affairs by mutual Consultation; who spend out of what We bestow on them for Sustenance;
[48:29] “Muhammad-the messenger of God, and those with him are harsh and stern against the disbelievers, but kind and compassionate amongst themselves. You see them bowing and prostrating, as they seek God’s blessings and approval.”
[50:40] “And during part of the night, (also,) celebrate His praises, and (so likewise) after the postures of adoration. ”
[62:9-10] “O ye who believe! When the call is proclaimed to prayer on Friday (the Day of Assembly), hasten earnestly to the Remembrance of Allah, and leave off business (and traffic): That is best for you if ye but knew! (9) – And when the Prayer is finished, then may ye disperse through the land, and seek of the Bounty of Allah: and celebrate the Praises of Allah often (and without stint): that ye may prosper. (10)”
[73:20] Thy Lord doth know that thou standest forth (to prayer) nigh two-thirds of the night, or half the night, or a third of the night, and so doth a party of those with thee. But Allah doth appoint night and day in due measure He knoweth that ye are unable to keep count thereof. So He hath turned to you (in mercy): read ye, therefore, of the Qur’an as much as may be easy for you. He knoweth that there may be (some) among you in ill-health; others travelling through the land, seeking of Allah’s bounty; yet others fighting in Allah’s Cause, read ye, therefore, as much of the Qur’an as may be easy (for you); and establish regular Prayer and give regular Charity; and loan to Allah a Beautiful Loan. And whatever good ye send forth for your souls ye shall find it in Allah’s Presence,- yea, better and greater, in Reward and seek ye the Grace of Allah: for Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
[74:41-44] “And (ask) of the Sinners: What led you into Hell Fire? They will say: “We were not of those who prayed; Nor were we of those who fed the indigent”
[98:5] And they have been commanded no more than this: To worship Allah, offering Him sincere devotion, being true (in faith); to establish regular prayer; and to practise regular charity; and that is the Religion Right and Straight.”
So 56 verses in the Quran mentioning about regular prayer and while three verses commanding fasting and two verses about the month of Ramadhan.
I have not looked at the verses regarding prayer in detail but just out of curiosity regarding the numerical miracle of the Quran so I divided 56/3 which is about 18. Where as the proportion of 365/30, the number of days in a year divided by the number of days in Ramadhan is about 12. Hmmm…no comment. But this is an interesting website on the numerical miracles of the Quran from miraclesofthequran.com (click to go to website):
“WORD REPETITIONS IN THE QUR’AN
Apart from the miraculous characteristics of the Qur’an which we have looked into so far, it also contains what we can term “mathematical miracles.” There are many examples of this fascinating Qur’anic aspect. One example of this is the number of repetitions of certain words in the Qur’an. Some related words are surprisingly repeated the same number of times. Below is a list of such words and the number of repetitions in the Qur’an.
The statement of “seven heavens” is repeated seven times. “The creation of the heavens (khalq as-samawat)” is also repeated seven times.
“Day (yawm)” is repeated 365 times in singular form, while its plural and dual forms “days (ayyam and yawmayn)” together are repeated 30 times. The number of repetitions of the word “month” (shahar) is 12.
The number of repetitions of the words “plant” and “tree” is the same: 26
The word “payment or reward” is repeated 117 times, while the expression “forgiveness” (mughfirah), which is one of the basic morals of the Qur’an, is repeated exactly twice that amount, 234 times.
When we count the word “Say,” we find it appears 332 times. We arrive at the same figure when we count the phrase “they said.”
The number of times the words, “world” (dunya) and “hereafter” (akhira) are repeated is also the same: 115
The word “satan” (shaitan) is used in the Qur’an 88 times, as is the word “angels” (malaika).
The word faith (iman) (without genitive) is repeated 25 times throughout the Qur’an as is also the word infidelity (kufr).
The words “paradise” and “hell” are each repeated 77 times.
The word “zakah” is repeated in the Qur’an 32 times and the number of repetitions of the word “blessing” (barakah) is also 32.
The expression “the righteous” (al-abraar) is used 6 times but “the wicked” (al-fujjaar) is used half as much, i.e., 3 times.
The number of times the words “Summer-hot” and “winter-cold” are repeated is the same: 5.
The words “wine” (khamr) and “intoxication” (saqara) are repeated in the Qur’an the same number of times: 6
The number of appearances of the words “mind” and “light” is the same: 49.
The words “tongue” and “sermon” are both repeated 25 times.
The words “benefit” and “corrupt” both appear 50 times.
“Reward” (ajr) and “action” (fail) are both repeated 107 times.
“Love” (al-mahabbah) and “obedience” (al-ta’ah) also appear the same number of times: 83
The words “refuge” (maseer) and “for ever” (abadan) appear the same number of times in the Qur’an: 28.
The words “disaster” (al-musibah) and “thanks” (al-shukr) appear the same number of times in the Qur’an: 75.
“Sun” (shams) and “light” (nur) both appear 33 times in the Qur’an.
- In counting the word “light” only the simple forms of the word were included.
The number of appearances of “right guidance” (al-huda) and “mercy” (al-rahma) is the same: 79
The words “trouble” and “peace” are both repeated 13 times in the Qur’an.
The words “man” and “woman” are also employed equally: 23 times.
Will they not ponder the Qur’an? If it had been from other than Allah, they would have found many inconsistencies in it.
The number of times the words “man” and “woman” are repeated in the Qur’an, 23, is at the same time that of the chromosomes from the egg and sperm in the formation of the human embryo. The total number of human chromosomes is 46; 23 each from the mother and father.
“Treachery” (khiyanah) is repeated 16 times, while the number of repetitions of the word “foul” (khabith) is 16.
“Human being” is used 65 times: the sum of the number of references to the stages of man’s creation is the same: i.e.
Human being 65
Soil (turab) 17
Drop of Sperm (nutfah) 12
Embryo (‘alaq) 6
A half formed lump of flesh (mudghah) 3
Bone (‘idham) 15
Flesh (lahm) 12
The word “salawat” appear five times in the Qur’an, and Allah has commanded man to perform the prayer (salat) five times a day.
The word “land” appears 13 times in the Qur’an and the word “sea” 32 times, giving a total of 45 references. If we divide that number by that of the number of references to the land we arrive at the figure 28.888888888889%. The number of total references to land and sea, 45, divided by the number of references to the sea in the Qur’an, 32, is 71.111111111111%. Extraordinarily, these figures represent the exact proportions of land and sea on the Earth today.238