“Saya mengaku, saya sendiri terkejut bila seorang rakan berkongsi artikel ni dalam group WA:

http://www.abuanasmadani.com/wanita-1-akal-9-nafsu/

Saya suka artikel tersebut dan sangat bersetuju, jadi quote sikit:

“WANITA; 1 AKAL, 9 NAFSU?

Sejak sekian lama masyarakat Islam di negara kita sentiasa terdedah dengan perkara yang pelik lagi menarik. Manusia memang berminat untuk mengetahui, mengeluar dan menyebarkan cerita-cerita yang karut, samada secara lisan, tulisan, filem atau apa saja”.

Berdasarkan pengalaman bekerja dengan pasukan/NGO Medical Mythbusters Malaysia, ternyata, orang Malaysia sangat suka share perkara-perkara yang sensasi lagi karut. Maaf lah, mungkin tidak semua, tetapi hakitkatnya, mitos perubatan yang nyata bagi golongan doktor adalah mustahil, kerap dapat beribu-ribu shares dan likes sehingga kami terpaksa ambil tindakan membuat sesuatu untuk memperbetulkan persepsi mahupun fakta-fakta yang salah.

Sambung balik artikel…

“Cerita bahawa kaum lelaki memiliki 9 akal dan 1 nafsu, manakala perempuan pula sebaliknya, iaitu 1 akal dan 9 nafsu memang amat masyhur sekali di kalangan kita. Ia telah  dilihat dan diterima oleh masyarakat kita sebagai sesuatu yang benar. Jika ditanya dari manakah sumber fakta ini diambil, mereka akan menjawabnya; mendengarnya daripada para alim ulama’.”

Bahaya taqlid atau ikut je tanpa pengetahuan kan? Walaupun saya bukan lah ‘islamic scholar’ tapi, insya Allah, adalah sedikit sebanyak baca tentang tafsir al-Quran dan hadis, memang tak pernah terjumpa apa-apa ayat quran atau hadis yang mengatakan perempuan kurang intelek berbanding lelaki.

Saya sambung lagi petikan dari artikel di atas:

“Kata-kata sakti ini dinukilkan daripada dialog yang berlaku di antara Imam al-Hasan al-Basri dengan tokoh Sufi yang masyhur, Rabiatul Adawiyah rahimahumalLah. Iaitu semasa al-Hasan pergi meminangnya setelah kematian suaminya, beliau telah disoal beberapa perkara oleh Rabiah dan tidak dapat menjawabnya. Tetapi apabila ditanya tentang akal, dikatakan al-Hasan telah menjawab sebagaimana di atas, iaitu 9:1 dan 1:9.

Demikianlah kisah yang didakwa telah berlaku di antara dua tokoh besar dalam Islam. Kisah ini telah dinukilkan oleh Usman al-Khaubawi, dalam kitabnya “Durrah an-Nasihin” , (dalam buku ini jugalah terdapat hadis masyhur di kalangan orang Melayu tentang kelebihan tertentu setiap malam solat terawih).

Menurut al-Fadhil Dr Abu Zaid, Ahmad Najib Abdullah al-Qari [mantan pensyarah KIAS, sekarang di APIUM, Nilam Puri] melalui makalah beliau dalam majalah “Pengasuh” terbitan MAIK bil 623:

Cerita ini tidak benar sama sekali untuk dinisbahkan kepada al-Hasan al-Basri (apalagi kepada Rasulullah saw) kerana ia diambil daripada sumber yang tidak sahih. Hujahnya mudah sahaja, al-Hasan al-Basri dilahirkan pada tahun 21H dan meninggal dunia pada 110H.  Manakala Rabiatul Adawiyah pula -berdasarkan pendapat yang paling tepat- dilahirkan pada tahun 100H dan meninggal dunia pada 180H [Lihat: Az-Zahabi, Siyar A’lam an-Nubala’: 8341].

Ini bermakna ketika al-Hasan meninggal dunia, Rabiatul Adawiyah baru berumur 10 tahun, bagaimana pula boleh berlaku dialog sedemikian di antara mereka berdua?

Untuk maklumat lanjut sila lihat majalah “Pengasuh” yang tersebut di atas tadi. Wallahua’lam.

Akhukum, Abu Anas Madani, 23 Syawal 1432H.”

Saya cari juga majalah Pengasuh, tetapi tak jumpa versi online.

Bila search 9 nafsu 1 akal pun, ada blog lain yang mengatakan perkara yang sama: tidak berpandukan hadis atau Quran. Laman sesawang bertauliah lain tak ada langsung.

Lepas tu, ada pula yang komen, “jangan terlalu cepat membuat kesimpulan. Dah study ke semua buku hadith yang enam termasuk Sahih Bukhari dan Muslim? Jika belum, tanyalah kepada scholar”.

Saya setuju, bukan saya tak setuju dengan pendapat rakan di atas, dan betul, saya pun bukan nya islamic scholar, tapi kan…

Mana-mana ayat Quran, kalau tulis terjemahan dalam BM atau BI, even if not the whole ayat but just phrases, insya Allah, akan jumpa. Saya tahu sebab banyak kali dah buat. Sama juga dengan hadis.

Tapi takpe, kita terima hujah, mungkin la, macam majalah Pengasuh tu, takde versi online.

Ok, so next step.

Jom kita cari hadith atau ayat Quran yang menyatakan perempuan ni kurang akal atau intelek berbanding lelaki.

Apa Maksud Hadis, “Wanita Kurang Akal dan Agamanya”?

Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam menjelaskan bahwa kekurangan akal wanita itu dilihat dari sudut ingatan yang lemah maka dari itu kesaksiannya harus dikuatkan oleh kesaksian seorang wanita yang lain. Adapun kekurangan agamanya adalah karena di dalam masa haid dan nifas ia meninggalkan shalat dan puasa dan tidak mengqadha (mengganti) shalat yang ditinggalkannya selama haid atau nifas.

April 27, 2010

Ok, saya dah jumpa hadis yang saya syak dimaksudkan oleh kawan facebook yang komen di atas. Kalau nak baca terus boleh klik link di bawah:

https://muslimah.or.id/664-apa-maksud-hadits-wanita-kurang-akal-dan-agamanya.html

“Pertanyaan: Kita selalu mendengar hadits yang berbunyi, “Wanita itu kurang akalnya dan kurang agamanya.” Hadits ini diutarakan kaum lelaki kepada wanita untuk merendahkannya. Kami mohon penjelasan arti hadits tersebut..

Jawaban:

Arti hadits:

“Aku tidak melihat wanita yang kurang akalnya dan agamanya yang dapat menghilangkan kemauan keras lelaki yang tegas daripada seorang diantara kamu”

Para wanita shahabat bertanya, “Apa yang dimaksud dengan kekurangan agama kami dan akal kami, ya Rasulullah?”

Jawab beliau, “Bukankah kesaksian seorang wanita itu setengah kesaksian seorang laki laki’? Mereka menjawab, “Ya”.

Beliau bersabda, “Itulah kekurangan akalnya. Dan bukankah apabila haid , wanita tidak melakukan shalat dan juga tidak berpuasa?” Mereka menjawab: “Ya.”

Rasululllah bersabda, “Itulah yang dimaksud kekurangan agamanya.”

Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam menjelaskan bahwa kekurangan akal wanita itu dilihat dari sudut ingatan yang lemah, maka dari itu kesaksiannya harus dikuatkan oleh kesaksian seorang wanita yang lain untuk menguatkannya, karena boleh jadi ia lupa, lalu memberikan kesaksian lebih dari yang sebenarnya atau kurang darinya, sebagaimana firman Allah,

“Dan persaksikanlah dengan dua orang saksi dari orang orang lelaki diantaramu. Jika tidak ada dua orang lelaki, maka boleh seorang lelaki dan dua orang wanita dari saksi saksi yang kamu ridhai, supaya jika seorang lupa, maka seorang lagi mengingatkannya.” (Qs. Al-Baqarah: 282)

Adapun kekurangan agamanya adalah karena di dalam masa haid dan nifas ia meninggalkan shalat dan puasa dan tidak mengqadha (mengganti) shalat yang ditinggalkannya selama haid atau nifas. Inilah yang dimaksud kekurangan agamanya. Akan tetapi kekurangan ini tidak menjadikannya berdosa, karena kekurangan tersebut terjadi berdasarkan aturan dari Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala”.

Sumber: https://muslimah.or.id/664-apa-maksud-hadits-wanita-kurang-akal-dan-agamanya.html

Bagi saya, penerangan di atas kurang lengkap dan sangat bias atau berat sebelah. Tumpukan perhatian ya, kritikan saya adalah pada penerangan maksud di sebalik hadis di atas, bukan hadis tersebut.

Ok takpe, kita fokus kepada makna disebalik kekurangan akal, bab kekurangan agama tu memang tak dapat dinafikan perempuan kurang solat dan puasa sebab perihal haid dan nifas, walaupun ada segelintir wanita yang tidak haid dan tiada nifas, tetapi sah semua lelaki tiada haid dan nifas.

Kita teliti lagi penerangan dari laman sesawang di atas:

“Dan inipun tidak berarti bahwa kaum lelaki lebih utama (lebih baik) daripada kaum wanita dalam segala hal. Memang, secara umum jenis laki laki itu lebih utama daripada jenis wanita karena banyak sebab, sebagaimana firman Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala.

“Kaum laki laki itu adalah pemimpin pemimpin bagi kaum wanita karena Allah telah melebihkan sebagian mereka (laki laki) atas sebagian yang lain (wanita) dan karena mereka (laki laki) telah menafkahkan sebagian dari harta mereka.”
(Qs.An Nisa’: 34)

Akan tetapi adakalanya perempuan lebih unggul daripada laki laki dalam banyak hal. Betapa banyak perempuan yang lebih unggul akal (kecerdasannya), agama dan kekuatan ingatannya daripada kebanyakan laki laki. Sesungguhnya yang diberitakan oleh Nabi shallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam d iatas adalah bahwasanya secara umum kaum perempuan itu di bawah kaum lelaki dalam hal kecerdasan akal dan agamanya dari dua sudut pandang yang dijelaskan oleh Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam tersebut”.

Ok, masih berat sebelah walaupun penulis menghuraikan bahawa lelaki ada kelebihan kerana berbanding wanita menurut ayat Quran An Nisa 34, namun begitu, ayat tersebut menyatakan sedemikian kerana lelaki menafkahkan sebahagian harta mereka, bukan kerana lelaki lebih inteleknya atau perempuan kurang akalnya.

Penulis masih menyokong bahawa secara am, wanita kurang akal berbanding lelaki dari sudut yang disebutkan dalam hadis di atas.

Saya sambung lagi artikel tersebut…

“Kadang ada perempuan yang amal shalihnya amat banyak sekali mengalahkan kebanyakan kaum laki laki dalam beramal shalih dan bertaqwa kepada Allahu Subhanahu wa Ta’ala serta kedudukannya di akhirat dan kadang dalam masalah tertentu perempuan itu mempunyai perhatian yang lebih sehingga ia dapat menghafal dan mengingat dengan baik melebihi kaum laki laki dalam banyak masalah yang berkaitan dengan dia (perempuan). Ia bersungguh sungguh dalam menghafal dan memperbaiki hafalannya sehingga ia menjadi rujukan (referensi) dalam sejarah Islam dan dalam banyak masalah lainnya.

Hal seperti ini sudah sangat jelas sekali bagi orang yang memperhatikan kondisi dan perihal kaum perempuan di zaman Rasulullah shallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam dan zaman sesudahnya”.

Saya pasti perempuan yang dimaksudkan penulis di atas adalah Aisyah RA, isteri Rasulullah SAW.

“Dari sini dapat diketahui bahwa kekurangan tersebut tidak menjadi penghalang bagi kita untuk menjadikan perempuan sebagai sandaran di dalam periwayatan, demikian pula dalam kesaksian apabila dilengkapi dengan satu saksi perempuan lainnya;”

Hmmmm….saya kecewa. Bagaimana seorang wanita yang kononnya kurang akal boleh dijadikan panduan hadis? Bukan kah itu tidak masuk akal?

“Semua itu tidak berarti kekurangan perempuan dalam segala hal dari sisi ketaqwaannya kepada Allah, dari sisi pengamalannya terhadap perintah perintahNya dan dari sisi kekuatan hafalannya dalam masalah masalah yang berkaitan dengan dia. Kekurangan hanya terletak pada akal dan agama seperti dijelaskan oleh Nabi shallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam. Maka tidak sepantasnya seorang lelaki beriman menganggap perempuan mempunyai kekurangan dalam segala sesuatu dan lemah agamanya dalam segala hal.

Kekurangan yang ada hanyalah kekurangan tertentu pada agamanya dan kekurangan khusus pada akalnya, yaitu yang berkaitan dengan validitas kesaksian. Maka hendaknya setiap muslim merlaku adil dan objektif serta menginterpretasikan sabda Nabi shallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam, sebaik-baik interpretasi. Wallahu ‘alam…
Fatwa Syaikh Ibn Baaz: Majalah Al Buhuts, edisi 9 hal. 100″.

Sumber: Fatwa-Fatwa terkini Jilid 1 Bab Pernikahan

Sehingga akhir artikel, penulis masih tidak berganjak dari pendapat asalnya, bahawasanya perempuan ada kekurangan akal. Ingat ya wahai para pembaca, ini adalah ulasan dan saya hanya kritikal terhadap ulasannya sahaja, bukan hadis tersebut.

Saya rasa masyarakat di Malaysia juga secara umumnya menerima penerangan tersebut ‘at face value’ iaitu betul, wanita kurang akal kerana pelupa dan perlu diingatkan jika menjadi saksi. Lelaki pula lebih pandai berbanding wanita. Hmmmm…..

Lepas tu saya terjumpa artikel di bawah yang sangat menarik perhatian, kerana memberi perspektif yang berbeza dari ulasan di atas.

http://aljumuah.com/women-men-and-intellectual-deficiency/

“Lost in Translation

“WOMEN ARE DEFICIENT in intellect.” These words, quoted from a famous ^adîth, have been gleefully used by many Muslim men to demean and belittle women, implying that they are, by nature, inferior.

It is sad that the majority of English translations and explanations (especially the latter) regarding this ^adîth convey an overtly negative attitude, even aggressive in some cases, toward women.

Yet when one reads the original Arabic Text, and searches for other classical explanations—such as that of the renowned Mâlikî jurist of Cueta (Sabta, in Arabic), Qâ\î ¢Iyâ\ (d. 544/1149)—a different picture is painted, one which reflects not negativity, but positivity.

The key phrase that we will look at here is the following: مارأيت من ناقصات عقل ودين أغلب لذي لب منكن

One can see for oneself the differences of translation—and by extension, interpretation—clearly in the following four citations:

  1. “In spite of your lacking in wisdom and failing in religion, you are depriving the wisest of men of their intelligence.” (sunnah.com/riyadussaliheen/20/11)
  2. “I have seen none lacking in common sense and failing in religion but (at the same time) robbing the wisdom of the wise, besides you.” (sunnah.com/muslim/1/147)
  3. “I have not seen anyone more deficient in intellect or dîn (religion). Yet the mind of even a resolute man might be swept away by one of you.” (sunnipath.com/library/hadith/H0002P0006.aspx)
  4. “I have never seen among those who have a deficiency in their intellect and their religion anyone more capable than women of swaying the intellect of the most determined of men.” (http://www.answering-christianity.com/karim/Rebuttal_to_Wiki_Islam_on___Are_Women_Deficient_in_Intelligence__.htm)

The first two are quite harsh, and a jumping board for those explanations which go into detail about how women are weak, lacking, and inferior in intelligence”.

Ulasan dari petikan di atas adalah, penjelasan hadis tersebut telah banyak di salah guna untuk menghina serta memperkecilkan kaum wanita dan digunakan sebagai hujah bahawa wanita adalah lemah berbanding kaum lelaki. Masalahnya terletak kepada tafsir hadis tersebut, sedangkan hadis itu sendiri, jika dibaca dalam teks asal bahasa Arab dan penjelasan klasik adalah memberi perspektif yang positif.

“Saya tidak pernah melihat mereka yang mempunyai kekurangan intelek dan agama namun berupaya mempengaruhi intelek kaum lelaki yang kuat azamnya”.

Saya pun bukan pakar dalam bahasa atau mengalih bahasa, kerja saya menukar artikel perubatan dari BM ke BI juga banyak cabaran untuk menyampaikan maksud yang sama 100% memang agak mustahil.

“Are the Knowing and Unknowing Equal?

What is a better explanation for this ^adîth, then?

In Ikmâl Al-Mu¢lim bi Fawâ’id Muslim (a commentary on ßa^î^ Muslim) by Qâ\î ¢Iyâ\, he discusses this ^adîth carefully. To begin with, he notes a small but significant detail in the ^adîth has been glossed over by many. When the Messenger of Allah œ approached the believing women to impress upon them the importance of giving |adaqah (charity) and repeating istighfâr (the asking of divine forgiveness), one of those women spoke up.

¢Abdullah ibn ¢Umar narrated that the Messenger of Allah œ said: “O womenfolk, you should give charity and ask much forgiveness, for I saw you in bulk amongst the dwellers of Hell.” A wise lady among them said: “Why is it, Messenger of Allah, that our kind is in bulk in Hell?”

Qâ\î ¢Iyâ\ takes the time to speak about this woman. In the Arabic Text, she is described as “imra’atun jazlatun.”

What does ‘jazlah’ mean? Another analysis of the ^adîth[1] defines ‘jazlah’ as “dhât al-¢aql, ra’iyy waqâr,” meaning, someone with intelligence, with an opinion based upon reason and rationale, and commanding respect.

This “imra’atun jazlah” was not merely content to hear this statement, but wanted to understand the reasoning behind it—and as Qâ\î ¢Iyâ\ states, she demonstrates her intelligence in that she did not challenge the Prophet œ in a disrespectful manner, but spoke up in a firm yet appropriate way. Nor does her question criticize the statement of the Prophet œ, but instead, she seeks to further her own understanding of his statement.

In fact, her behavior embodies the ayah: It is not for a believing man or a believing woman, when Allah and His Messenger have decided a matter, that they should [thereafter] have any choice about their affair. (Surat Al-A^zâb, 33:36)”

Penulis cuba menghuraikan hadis tersebut dari perspektif berbeza. Ia berlaku semasa Nabi Muhammad SAW menasihatkan kaum wanita untuk bersedekah dan banyakkan beristigfar kerana melihat ramai kaum hawa di dalam neraka.

Seorang wanita yang bijaksana di kalangan mereka bertanya, mengapakah ramai wanita di dalam neraka?

Wanita ini diterangkan dalam teks Arab sebagai “imra’atun jazlatun.”

Hadis lain menerangkan ‘jazlah’ sebagai “dhât al-¢aql, ra’iyy waqâr,” iaitu seorang yang cerdik, pandai, dan membuat pandangan berdasarkan logik akal dan juga seorang yang dihormati.

 

Kembali kepada artikel tersebut…

“Be Mindful of ‘Aql

Another interesting point that Qâ\î ¢Iyâ\ makes is how the word ¢aql is defined and understood, especially in the context of this ^adîth. Only one definition equates with the widely translated and assumed one of “intellect,” whereas he also mentions it as certain, specific types of knowledge, and also as one in possession of a surpassing, deep insight and the acumen to distinguish the true reality and nature of things.

The writer Azeez Muhammad Abu Khalaf further discusses the concept of “nâqis ¢aql,” and how it is taken out of context in this ^adîth and infused with a implication that has no evidence whatsoever either in the Quran or Sunnah, namely, the claim that women are intellectually inferior to men.

In the Quran, the use of the word ‘¢aql’ is generally related not to intellect in and of itself, but rather, it is employed as a device to push people to achieve a realization about Allah, the purpose of life, and so forth, to motivate them to work for their Hereafter, which is akin to how it is used in the context of this ^adîth: To emphasize the severity of the matter at hand. Thus, it is a mechanism to galvanize the acknowledged faith of these women in the meritorious actions of giving |sadaqah, voluntary charity, and increasing their petitions for God’s forgiveness, or istighfâr”.

Akal pula, dalam konteks hadis ini, perlu difahami. Akal boleh juga disamakan maksud dengan intelek, tetapi dalam hadis ini, hanya merujuk kepada satu jenis intelek.

Jika akal ditafsirkan menurut pandangan ia merangkumi intelek secara umum, yang mana tidak disokong oleh mana-mana ayat Quran atau hadis yang lain, iaitu, kepercayaan bahawa wanita adalah kurang akal atau intelek berbanding lelaki.

Penggunaan perkataan akal di dalam Quran merujuk kepada bukan intelek tetapi memikir untuk menyedari tujuan hidup sebenar adalah untuk Allah, supaya mereka meraih bekerja dan beramal untuk akhirat, dan itu lah juga khusus penggunaan perkataan akal dalam hadis ini. Untuk menggalakkan wanita bersedekah dan beristigfar.

“Even those who try to argue that women are inferior because their testimony equals only half that of a man’s are ignoring the fact that the Quranic ayah says simply so that one can remind the other (Al-Baqarah, 2:282), which is, properly, a matter (a commentary?) that speaks to the common societal need of social support for women (who are more likely to be vulnerable to duress), and also to the potential of societal deficiency in facilitating female social experience in the economic sphere. The point is these stipulations in no way comment on female intellect. There is no mention whatsoever of inferiority in any other way, especially with regard to intelligence, either in the Quran or the Sunnah.

As to the details of a woman’s testimony, it must be known that it is not a blanket ruling applicable to any and all situations. There are cases where a man’s testimony is rejected completely; for example, in matters of childbirth, nursing, and the like. In other cases, a woman’s testimony is considered equal to that of a man’s. The details of these situations are subjects for a discussion of fiqh.

Abu Khalaf also points out that those who try to use this ^adîth to demean women are actually missing a significant aspect of the ^adîth itself. How could the woman mentioned be described as “jazlah” if the Prophet œ was actually telling women that they are not intelligent?”

Ayat Quran 2: 282 juga tidak menyebut wanita kurang pandai, tujuan mengingati lebih kepada sokongan moral, dan juga menggambarkan keadaan masyarakat Arab ketika itu, di mana wanita tidak berkecimpung dalam aktiviti bisnes.

Testimoni wanita juga bergantung kepada keadaan dan bukan pukul rata semua benda. Ada juga keadaan di mana kesaksian lelaki tidak diterima contohnya berkenaan melahirkan anak, menyusu dan sebagainya. Di dalam kes lain, kesaksian wanita adalah sama dengan kesaksian lelaki.

Abu Khalaf juga mengetengahkan, bagaimana boleh hadis ini digunakan untuk memandang rendah kepada wanita sedangkan wanita yang bertanya disebut sebagai jazlah, jika benar Rasulullah SAW ingin memberitahu kaum wanita mereka sebenarnya kurang cerdik?

“Text and Context

As for the second part of the ^adîth (أغلب لذي لب منكن), which has been translated in varying degrees of similar negative connotations, it is an example which highlights the power of words.

The word ‘ghalaba’ in Arabic means ‘to defeat, to prevail, overpower, to overcome, to subdue’—basically, to have power over someone, the connotaions being of superiority and influence. Translations such as “robbing the wisdom of the wise,” “swaying the intellect of the most resolute of men,” and the like degrade women by implying that they are uniquely deceptive, cunning, and manipulative.

Yet—just as easily, and perhaps much more accurately—it can be translated as women being able to outwit and outsmart men, which, in turn, highlights that women are not, in fact, lacking in or inferior when it comes to the intellect. After all, how could someone stupid be able to outsmart “dhî lubbin”—a very intelligent, or wise, or resolute man?

Amusingly enough, there is a similar saying in Arabic (و شر غالب لمن غلب), the victor’s evil belongs to the vanquished, which implies that it is the one who is defeated who is blameworthy, not the victor[2][3].

Some explanations of this ^adîth, including that of Qâ\î ¢Iyâ\, mention that the Prophet œ uttered this statement as a compliment, an expression of admiration and affirmation of a character quality.

He also makes the interesting observation that the Prophet œ spoke these words in a special address to the women of the An|âr, who were known for their outspokenness, intelligence, and their generally equal footing with their men. This is in contrast to the people of Makkah, whose men were domineering over their womenfolk. The Prophet œ is thus, in a sense, acknowledging these women for the ease with which they are able to match wits with men, despite the latter’s general physical advantage”.

Konteks “menghilangkan kemauan keras lelaki yang tegas daripada seorang diantara kamu” menunjukkan bahawa wanita itu adalah cerdik kerana boleh memujuk seorang lelaki yang ada pendirian teguh. Sekali lagi, contoh perkataan yang digunakan dalam menerangkan hadis tersebut boleh memberi pelbagai anggapan sama ada positif mahupun negatif, tetapi hakikatnya ia diucapkan oleh Rasullullah SAW kepada kaum Ansar di Madinah, yang mempunyai kedudukan sosial yang sama berbanding kaum lelaki mereka.

“It is important in studying this ^adîth—especially in light of how it has been incorrectly translated and explained—to know that this incident took place on Eid morning, an occasion for joy and celebration. It is inconceivable that the Prophet œ would say something deeply offensive, meant to hurt, or harmful to the psychology of those whom he was addressing (in this case, the believing women). Rather, it is known that the Messenger of Allah œ spoke in the best of ways and most eloquently, and that when he spoke to the believers, he did so always in a manner inpsiring them to grow closer to Allah, not more distant.

Yet this point is rarely even given consideration in English explanations of this ^adîth, misrepresenting it as all the more negative toward Muslim women”.

Satu aspek yang sering dilupakan adalah hadis ini berlaku di pagi raya, suasana di mana semua orang Islam bergembira. Adalah tidak masuk akal sekiranya Rasulullah SAW akan mengatakan sesuatu yang menghina dan menyakiti kaum wanita yang Baginda sedang menasihati, dan Rasulullah SAW sentiasa bercakap dengan cara berhemah yang memberi inspirasi kepada orang Islam untuk lebih dekat kepada Allah SWT dan bukan lebih jauh.

“Unalike vs Inferior

If women are, indeed, inferior in intellect, then how on earth can any woman be accepted as a scholar of Islam in any capacity? If women are inferior in intellect, then how can they be entrusted with the most important type of knowledge—that of Islam itself—endangering the souls of Muslims throughout the world?

Obviously, this is not the case. From ¢Âishah to ±afsah to Zaynab bint Abî Salamah—and the other wives of the Prophet œ and Mothers of the Belivers, may Allah be pleased with them—to our women of learning today, women have been entrusted with the Sacred Knowledge of Islam. It is incontrovertibly evidenced, moreover, that the Prophet œ and his male Companions fully recognized, acknowledged, and valued the worth of women, their intellect, and their contributions to the Ummah.

Perhaps one of the greatest evidences regarding Muslim women and their intellectual influence is the quote of the great ^adîth expert Imam Al-Dhahabî that he had never come across a female ^adîth transmitter accused of forgery (muttaham), or who had been discarded (matrûk) due to a high degree of unreliability[4]. As formidable a figure in the field of ^adîth, and specifically in the subspecialty of al-jar^ wa ta¢dîl (the science of “criticizing and crediting” the reliability of ^adîth narrators), Al-Dhahabî’s words are especially significant and meaningful.

In sum, it is enough to know that this ^adîth does not, in fact, provide any evidence or even imply that women are intellectually inferior in any manner to men. Rather, what this ^adîth does recognize and point out is what we already know from the Quran وليس الذكر كالأنثى, and the male is not like the female (Sûrat Âl ¢Imrân, 3:36), meaning that the Sharî¢ah conditions and stipulations with regard to each can be specific to gender in matters of religious obligation and prohibition (as relates to ritual worship), and where Allah has specified requirements or constraints in His Law.

The words of the Prophet œ in this ^adîth first caution the women he is addressing regarding their own behavior; then remind them of their differences as opposed to men in specific aspects of this Religion (giving testimony, praying, and fasting); then remind them that male rationality is also imperfect.

He points out that women can match wits even with “dhî lubbin” (the most intelligent of men). Some men may feel insulted or offended at the idea of a woman outsmarting them or proving herself to their intellectual superior, but the Prophet œ is telling us that this is a fact.

Allah has created men and women as partners complementing each other in every way, intellectually, emotionally, or spiritually. The Quran and Sunnah emphasize that Allah created men and women to asssist one another, giving both duties and responsibilities to fulfill in obedience to Him. He did not create either one superior or inferior to the other but rather designated them as diversely responsible “shepherds,” as the Prophet œ clearly states: All of you are shepherds and each of you is responsible for his flock (Al-Adab Al-Mufrad).

In the case of the ^adîthnaqsân al-¢aql wa al-dîn, many argue that it evidences a women’s inherent “deficiency” and inferiority to men, and based on this exaggerate woman’s “weakness,” though, as already shown, neither the Quran nor Sunnah support this understanding. Men and women are held equally accountable in the Sight of Allah, as human beings, each one responsible for using his or her intellect to distinguish between good and evil and to act accordingly.

A more appropriate translation may, therefore, go as follows: “Despite your incompleteness in ¢aql and dîn, I have never seen anyone more able to triumph over even the most intelligent of men.””

Kaum wanita adalah berbeza dari kaum lelaki, tetapi tidak kurang dari segi intelektual nya, kerana wanita juga menjadi islamic scholar dari zaman Rasulullah SAW sampai sekarang. Cuma dari segi Shariah, kewajipan dan larangan adalah berbeza kerana lelaki dan wanita berbeza.

Rasulullah SAW cuma mengingatkan kaum wanita tentang kelakuan mereka dan perbezaan dengan lelaki dari segi agama serta mengingatkan mereka bahawa lelaki juga tidak sempurna, dan wanita boleh ‘mengalahkan’ lelaki dari segi intelektual sehingga mengubah pendirian mereka.

Lelaki dan perempuan dijadikan pasangan dan setiap mempunyai fungsi yang tersendiri dan membantu satu sama lain, bukan lah satu kaum dijadikan lebih baik di sisi Allah dari yang satu lagi.

Tiada hadis atau ayat Quran lain yang menyatakan kaum wanita mempunyai kedudukan yang kurang di sisi Allah, setiap lelaki dan perempuan bertanggungjawab ke atas diri masing-masing, menggunakan akal yang ada untuk kebaikan.

“While we cannot directly accuse translators and writers of deliberately trying to cause harm, we do have to recognize the very real consequences and effects that their words and interpretations may have upon people and our Ummah. Moreover, it is imperative for us to recognize and to challenge the misinterpretations and consequences of these translations”.

Amatlah penting bagi kita untuk memperbetulkan persepsi yang salah dan kesannya ke atas Ummat Islam. Wallahua’lam.

Lagi satu artikel menarik yang sama jumpa berkaitan dengan hadis di atas:

http://www.alhewar.com/TahaTestimony.htm

The Testimony of Women in Islamic Law
by Dr. Taha Jaber Al-Alwani

The only verse in the entire Qur’an to equate the testimony of two women to that of one man is the so-called verse of debt (ayat al dayn), which occurs in Qur’an 2:282. This verse contains a significant amount of material that later jurists categorized variously as recommended or merely instructional (irshad) and without legal import. However, a very few jurists opined that the recording of debts, witnessing, and all other matters dealt with in the verse may be categorized as obligatory (wajib).
Whether we agree or disagree with a particular school, there is near unanimity among all jurists that the Qur’an’s mention of testimony in relation to transactions was revealed to advise Muslims on how they might reduce the possibility of misunderstandings arising among themselves. Therefore, the entire matter of testimony was revealed to humanity by way of instruction. Obviously, instruction is one thing, while binding legal precepts are another matter entirely.
The verse of debt, moreover, may be seen as connecting testimony, the taking of witnesses, the agreement of both parties to the contract at the time of its ratification, and the judge’s (qadi) acceptance of testimony given by the witnesses, as follows:

 

and call upon two of your men to act as witnesses; and if two men are not available, then a man and two women from among such as are acceptable to you as witnesses… (2:282)

The verse goes on to explain the reason for seeking testimony from two women in place of the testimony of one man, by saying “…so that if one of them should make a mistake, the other could remind her” (2:282).

    Thus, the verse indicates clearly that there are differences in the ability of women to serve, under the prevailing social conditions, as competent witnesses and givers of testimony in cases involving financial transactions. The relevant wording implies, that in general, transactions were not often matters of concern to women at that time. It also indicates that the actual witness would be one woman, even though her testimony might require the support of another woman who would “remind” her if necessary. Thus, one woman acts as a guarantor for the accuracy of the other’s testimony.
Obviously, then, the two are not on the same level, for one witness is supposed to be knowledgeable and aware of that to which she is testifying. As such her testimony is legally acceptable. The other witness is considered merely a guarantor, for the basis of all legal testimony is that it should aid the judge in reviewing the case as if he/she had been an actual witness thereof. Moreover, testimony is considered a legal responsibility so as to instill within the witness a heightened sense of his/her awareness of God and of the importance of the undertaking, so that he/she will not be careless with the testimony or swayed by emotions or personal feelings. If the verse were understood in this way, it is likely that many of the past and present disputes surrounding it could be avoided, for the main cause of such disputes has been the belief that the verse has binding and legal significance.
Furthermore, classical scholars appended another matter to the verse’s guidelines concerning testimony, one that had absolutely nothing to do with the distribution of responsibilities addressed in the verse: their assumption that the verse pointed to women’s natural inferiority, especially in terms of their mental and physical abilities, despite its clear reference to women living at the time of revelation—a time when there were few or no opportunities for women to receive an education, to occupy positions of responsibility in society, or to undertake work that would increase their experience in ways that would make “being reminded” unnecessary. However, once society passes beyond that stage and women are allowed to participate more fully in its affairs, and in transactions in particular, there should no longer be a need for such arrangements.
The question for consideration is whether or not, on the basis of the verse’s circumstantial context (‘illah), the testimony of one woman may be accepted even when the teaching of the verse is that two women should testify. Before dealing with this question, however, and before examining whether or not it is legitimate or whether it may be answered in the affirmative or the negative, we must reflect on several different issues.

Nak masuk zuhur, insya Allah bersambung lagi…

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